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Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo (Louis XIV), Regence (Louis XV), Neo-Classical (Louis XVI), Biedermeier, Eclectic (Victorian), Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau, Art Deco and Scandanavian

European Furniture – Pre-Victorian (to 1830)

Gothic Furniture (1200 – 1425) The great cathedrals of the Gothic period were expressions of a new affluence but their interiors contained simple functional, oak furniture. Late in the Gothic period, carved decoration echoing the arched shapes of Gothic architecture appeared. All houses in the Middle Ages were damp and furniture needed to be raised […]  Continue Reading »

European Furniture – Biedermeier (1815 – 1860)

Empire style furniture (and Regency in England) was largely made for the aristocracy. But the period after the Napoleonic period in the Austro-Hungarian Empire saw the rise of the middle classes, culminating in a series of revolutions in 1848. The style of furniture developed for the newly influential middle class became known as “Biedermeier” (originally […]  Continue Reading »

European Furniture – 19th Century Eclectic (1830 – 1870)

The 19th century saw a variety of styles. Concurrently with the Empire style of the early 19th century was the Gothic Revival which was based on the idea that the Greek and Roman forms of the neo-classical furniture were pagan. The Gothic Revival, therefore, replaced the classical decoration with Gothic architectural elements while keeping the […]  Continue Reading »

Arts & Crafts Furniture (1870 – 1884)

The Arts and Crafts Movement began in England in reaction to the machine-made furniture and other items which had been made possible by the Industrial Revolution. The English Arts and Crafts Movement produced designs for every aspect of the decorative arts and was imitated on the Continent and in America. Arts and Crafts Furniture emphasises […]  Continue Reading »

Art Nouveau Furniture (1884 – 1918)

Art Nouveau developed from the the Arts and Crafts Movement.  It attempts to create organic forms and a sense of movement by the use of flowing curves and austere detailing. In Paris in 1895, Siegfried Bing opened La Maison de l’Art Nouveau where he sold furniture designed by Georges de Feure, Eugene Gaillard and Edward […]  Continue Reading »

Art Deco Furniture (1919 – 1939)

The increasing intrusion of technology into daily life fostered the development of the Art Deco during the 1920s and 1930s. This aimed to make use of new materials and techniques while retaining a simple, functional style. The result was angular, abstract and geometrical shapes usually with a highly lustrous finish and often inlaid with exotic […]  Continue Reading »

Scandinavian Furniture

From the 18th century on, Scandinavians used native pine to reproduce foreign software styles, particularly Georgian and Hepplewhite. Paint was used to mimic veneers and other decoration. Sweden maintained its craft traditions while it industrialised so that by the time of the First World War, Swedes were still using traditional materials and techniques to produce […]  Continue Reading »